Women form the majority among Brazilians with Ph.D. obtained abroad in 2014—more than 60%, according to a new survey released by the Center for Strategic Studies and Management in Science, Technology, and Innovation (CGEE). However, women with Ph.D. still suffer a disadvantage compared with men—they earn on average 16.5% less. While 71.4% of men with Ph.D. are employed, this rate drops to 48.82% among women.
The Report on the Doctors Degree Obtained Abroad (1970-2014), produced by CGEE—social organization supervised by the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation (MCTI) with the purpose of obtaining high-level technical information about the sector—aimed to develop a profile of doctors with the degree fully obtained abroad and it was first released Tuesday (Mar. 29) to a group of experts and journalists.
The survey shows that in Brazil 14,173 doctors obtained the degree abroad between 1970 and 2014. Of this total, 8,357, or 59%, are men, and 5,786 (41%) are women. Until 2011, men left the country the most for obtaining the degree. From 2012, the scenario has changed, and women outpaced men.
"This matches the situation of women breaking into the labor market. In this period, motherhood was no longer the most important thing, because to attend a full doctoral program abroad, it is necessary to be away for a longer period. In the beginning [of the study], there were fewer women, but this has changed, and in 2012 the trend reversed and shall continue," said CGEE consultant Cláudio Ribeiro.
"Regardless the growth of Brazilian graduate programs, people should also obtain their degree abroad. There are areas in which Brazil lacks developed competence. Moreover, it is good to send people to other countries that take differing views and research lines in order to train Brazilian researchers with different ideas and views," reported Ribeiro.
According to researchers, it is necessary to better qualify Brazilian-trained doctors, since affording a researcher overseas during the doctorate is expensive. The Science without Borders Program (CsF) is mentioned as one of the major government initiatives for doctoral programs. The program gives fellowships to more than 3,300 Brazilians for full doctoral programs abroad.
"The CsF made an effort for a radical change in training abroad. It works on several levels, it is not just a program for doctors. I think CsF established a single point for the discussion of Brazilian public policies on training, enriching the understanding that foreign exchanges need to be intensified, and become widespread," said CGEE Director Antonio Carlos Galvão.
Translated by Amarílis Anchieta
Fonte: Agência Brasil.