Non-Invasive ventilation is the delivery of oxygen through a face mask which eradicates the use of an endotracheal airway. Different non-invasive ventilation types are used for treating different respiratory issues.
There are two types of non-invasive ventilation categorised as negative and positive.
Negative non-invasive ventilation
Positive noninvasive ventilation
NIV has achieved comparative psychological benefits to conventional mechanical ventilation by reducing the work of breathing and improving gas exchange.
This treatment is considered the most effective method for patients who are suffering from respiratory failures. NIV has been used primarily for patients with acute hypercapnia ventilator failure, and especially for acute exacerbation of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this population, the use of NIV is associated with a marked reduction in the need for endotracheal intubation, a decrease in complication rate, a reduced duration of hospital stay, and a substantial reduction in in-hospital mortality. Similar benefits have also been demonstrated in patients with asphyxia forms of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
For patients who are suffering from initial hypoxemic forms of respiratory failure, the chances of success of Non-invasive ventilation varies most of the time, however, major satisfaction has also been exhibited in a selected number of people with less or no inconsistency such as multiple organ failure, No consciousness or hemodynamic instability.
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation is the type of ventilator assistant which comes without any artificial pressure. It is delivered via a tight-fitting mask worn around the face that covers both the nose and mouth. Because the airway is unprotected, aspiration, therefore the patients must have required alertness and airway protective reflexes.
There are two main types of Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation
CPAP or Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
Bi-level or Bi-PAP therapy
During CPAP, consistent pressure is balanced throughout the respiratory rotation without adding extra inspiratory assistance.
While using the B-PAP, the doctor set up both expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) which is then considered as the equivalent of CPAP, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Also, additionally, the inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP).
Negative pressure ventilation
Nowadays, the treatment method of negative pressure ventilation is rarely available these days in a very few centers in the world.
It should be mentioned, however, that negative pressure ventilation was the first mode of delivering non-invasive ventilation before positive pressure ventilation became the rule in the 1950s. Its efficacy in the treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD may be superior, inexperienced hands, to a traditional approach with invasive mechanical ventilation, and similar to non-invasive ventilation via a face mask.
The success of non-invasive ventilation is dependent on various clinical aspects and the organization of care, but also a lot of technical issues. Far from being details, they can make a large difference. They include the patient/ventilator interface type of humidifier and ventilator used and its capabilities for triggering and pressurization. The general care of the patient is different from that for a patient receiving invasive ventilation, and will thus potentially greatly influence the success of the technique. There is now a good evidence base for the use of non-invasive ventilation in numerous different conditions and settings; however, it remains a complementary therapy to invasive ventilation and clinicians need to be aware of the contraindications.
These are the different methods of non-invasive ventilation types by which many people get benefitted. People with chronic respiratory issues are often recommended by doctors and pulmonologists to undergo this treatment. This disease cannot be cured permanently, however, the symptoms can be prevented.