(BPT) - Anyone who has tried to borrow money to purchase a car, buy a home or open a revolving line of credit may be familiar with the term FICO Score. Most lenders use this scoring model, which essentially determines a person's creditworthiness.
"The FICO Score may seem like a big, daunting mystery, especially since your score can have a huge impact on your ability to borrow money at a competitive rate," said Jim Johnston, of Colorado-based Bellco Credit Union. "The truth is, however, you do have power over your credit score, and there are things you can do to improve it over time."
How FICO Score is calculated
FICO was named for the data analytics company Fair Isaac Co., which created the first credit-scoring system. In general, a credit score breaks down as follows:
* 35 percent is your payment history - Do you pay bills on time?
* 30 percent is the amounts you owe (on loans, credit cards, etc.) - Owing money on different credit accounts is not necessarily bad, especially if you're paying your bills on time every month. FICO considers how many of your accounts have balances, if you're using your entire credit line, and how much of any installment loan you still owe.
* 15 percent is the length of your credit history - Having a long credit history is good, but even if you're young and barely have any credit history (such as credit cards and a car loan), you can still have a high FICO score.
* 10 percent is your credit mix - What is your mix of credit, meaning credit cards, retail accounts, installment loans, mortgage loans, etc.? A good mix of credit, especially with a history of on-time payments, is helpful to your score.
* 10 percent is any new credit - If you've opened numerous credit accounts in a short period, this can have a negative impact. Although closing a credit account still shows up on your credit history, it has no impact on your score.
Tips to improve your score
Repairing your credit takes time, so it's important to be patient. Below are three things you can do.
1. Check your credit report - The first thing you should do is get a free copy of your credit report and make sure there are no errors. If you find an error, you have the right to dispute it with the credit bureau.
2. Get organized - Don't make any more late payments on your credit cards. The best way to do this is to get organized. Set up auto payments through your bank or credit union, or set reminders to make payments before they are due.
3. Pay down your debt - While this is no easy task, it will make a difference. Use your credit report to make a list of all your credit cards and the balances you owe. Pick the credit cards with the highest interest rates, and tackle those balances first. Most importantly, don't add to your debt by continuing to use your credit cards.
Your FICO Score does not take into account annual income, length of employment, or other sources of financial support such as alimony or child support. However, these are things that your bank or credit union can consider when you're borrowing money, so it's not all about the FICO Score.
Knowledge is power. Understand what your FICO Score is, how a good or bad score can impact your life, and if a low FICO Score is holding you back. There's no better time than now to begin to make positive changes to improve your score.